Tuesday, December 30, 2008



General Science
Current Events of National and International Importance.
History of India and Indian National Movement. India and World Geography.
General Mental Ability.
Questions on General Science will cover General appreciation and understanding of science including
matters of every day observation and experience, as may be expected of a well educated person who
has not made a special study of any particular scientific discipline. In current events, knowledge of
significant national and international events will be tested. In History of India, emphasis will be on
broad general understanding of the subject in its social, economic and political aspects. Questions
on Indian National Movement will relate to the nature and character of the nineteenth century
resurgence, growth of Nationalism and attainment of independence. In geography emphasis will be on
geography of India. Questions on geography of India will relate to physical, social and economic
geography of the country, including the main features of the Indian agricultural and natural resources.
On general mental ability, the candidates will be tested on reasoning and analytical abilities.
1. The Satavahanas and their contribution – social structure – Ikshvakus and their cultural
contribution; Buddhism and Jainism; The Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi – their socio-cultural
contribution – growth of Telugu language & Literature.
2. Socio- Cultural and Religious conditions in Andhra Desha between first and fifteenth
centuries of the Christian Era.
3. Establishment of British Rule – 1857 Revolt and its impact on Andhra and Hyderabad
Socio-cultural awakening ; Adi-Andhra/Dalit and Justice/self – respect movements;
Growth of Nationalist Movement in Andhra between 1885 and 1947 – Role of socialists –
communists – anti-zamindari-kisan movements.
4. Asafjahi Dynasty – socio-cultural awakening in Telangana -Adi-Hindu Movement – Nizam
Rashtra Janasangham – Andhra Mahasabha – Andhra Saaraswata Parishat – Hyderabad
State Congress and Vandemataram Movement.
5. Growth of Leftist / Communist Movement and Telangana People’s Armed Struggle –
Ittehadul-Muslimeen – Razakars-anti-Nizam Struggles and end of Nizam’s Rule.
Integration of Hyderabad State into Indian Union – Formation of Andhra Pradesh –
Important historical events after 1956.
1) Salient features of the Indian Constitution – Preamble, Fundamental Duties, Fundamental
Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy and their relationship.
2) Distinctive features of Indian Federation - Distribution of Legislative Powers between the Union
and the State; Relative roles of Legislature, Executive and Judiciary.
3) Community development experiment – 3 tier model of Panchayat Raj – 73
and 74
amendments and their implementation.
4) Welfare Mechanism in India: Provisions for Scheduled Castes, Tribes and Minorities;
Reservations for SC, ST and Backward Classes; Prevention of SC and ST Atrocities Act;
National and State SC and ST Commission; Women’s Commission; National and States
Minorities Commission and Human Rights Commission.
5) Unicameral and Bicameral Legislatures – Functions and crises of accountability, decline of

1) Planning in Indian Economy – Socio-economic objectives and outlays of 5 year plans – Major
controversies of planning in India – Alternative strategies – Goals and achievements – shortfall
of different plans – Planning in the market – Major reforms/policy changes effect from 1991.
2) Broad fiscal, monetary, industrial trade and agricultural policies, objectives, rationale,
constraints and effects.
3) Geographic size – Endowment of natural resources, population; size composition quality and
growth trends – occupational distribution – effect of British rule with reference to drain theory
and Laissez faire Policy.
4) Money banking and public finances – concept of money and measures of money supply
velocity of money banks and credit creation, determination of price level – inflation, its causes
and remedies , finance budget – taxes and non-tax revenue.
5) Meaning and measurements of growth- growth distribution and welfare, characteristics of
under development, stages of development, sources of growth capital – human capital,
population, productivity, trade and aid, growth strategies – types of average measures –
dispersion-correlation-index numbers ; types, uses and limitations.
1. National Income & Main sectors of Economy, GDP (Gross Domestic Product), Per capita
income and HDI (Human Development Index) as measures of development. Relative
contribution of agriculture to income and employment in the recent four decades of AP.
2. Five year plans of AP – Outlays, Finance in public sector plan and resource allocation
pattern in the recent five year plan.
3. Need for and aims of land reforms in AP – Structure of land holdings in AP. Forest, sown
and irrigated area in AP. Cropping pattern. Sources of Agricultural finance in AP –
Agricultural subsidies.
4. Growth and structure of Industries in Andhra Pradesh , factories, small and tiny sectors,
their comparison , growth , weaknesses and problems- Institutional and non-institutional –
growth and structure of cooperatives in Andhra Pradesh – Share of cooperatives in total
credits – adequacy and problems.
5. Structure of Agricultural outputs – administered prices including support and procurement
prices – Public Distribution System in AP ; Service sector of AP – importance, composition
and growth with special reference to transport and communication, tourism and information
and biotechnology.

Junior Lecturers Syllabus of APPSC

(P.G. standard)
Papers No.of
PART-A: Written ‘Examination (Objective Type)
Paper-1: General Studies 150 150 150
Paper-2: Concerned Subject (One only) 150 150 300
PART-B: Interview (Oral Test)
1. The Candidates have to choose one subject from the following for Paper-2:
Name of the Subject
1. The selections to these posts will be based on the total marks obtained by the candidates at the
written examination and oral test taken together subject to the rule of reservation.
2. The eligible candidates will be called for an interview at the ratio of 1:2 with referenced to the
number of vacancies duly following the special representation as laid down in General Rule-22 and
22-A of A.P. State and Subordinate Service Rules.
3. Appearance to Written Examination and Oral Test is compulsory for final selection.
4. For Paper-2 i.e., concerned subject the candidates have to write the subject of study at Post
Graduate level but not other subject
1. General Science – Contemporary developments in Science and Technology and their implications
including matters of every day observation and experience, as may be expected of a well-educated person
who has not made a special study of any scientific discipline.
2. Current events of national and international importance.
3. History of India – emphasis will be on broad general understanding of the subject in its social, economic,
cultural and political aspects with a focus on AP Indian National Movement.
4. World Geography and Geography of India with a focus on AP.
5. Indian polity and Economy – including the country’s political system- rural development – Planning and
economic reforms in India.
6. Mental ability – reasoning and inferences.

Detailed Study of literary age (19
Century) viz.,
The period of English Literature from 1798 to 1900 with special reference to the works of the major
writers including Words worth, Coleridge, Byron, Keats, Shelley, Lamb, Hazlitt, Thackeray, Dickens,
Tennyson, Browning, Arnold George Eliot, Calyle and Ruskin.
Study of the following Texts:
1. William Shakespeare : ‘Macbeth’, ‘Hamlet’, ‘Julius Vrsdst’, ‘Tempest’
2. John Milton : ‘Paradise Lost’, -Books I & II
3. Alexander Pope : .‘The Rape of the Lock’
4. William Wordsworth : ‘The Immorality Ode’, ‘The Tin Tern Abbey’
5. John Keats : ‘Ode to a Nightingale’
6. P.B. Shelley : ‘Ode to the West Wing’
7. Jane Austen : ‘Pride and Prejudice’.
8. Charles Dickens : ‘A Tale of Two Cities’
9. Thomas Hardy : ‘The mayor of Casterbridge’
10. W.B. Yeats : “Byzantium”, ‘The Second Coming’.
11. T.S. Eliot : ‘The Waste Land’.
12. D.H. Lawrence : ‘Sons and Lovers’.
13. Mulk Raj Anand : ‘The Big heart’
14. R.K. Narayan : ‘The Man eater of Malgudi’

a) Study of classical poets – their age and works – particular selections from Nannaya, Tikkana,
Errapragada, Salva Poets i.e., (Nannechoda, Mallikarjuna Pandita, Palakuriki Soma), Nachana
Somana – Bhaskara Ramayana poets and Ranganatha Ramayana Poet – Srinatha – Pothana –
Pillalamarri Pinaveerabhadra – Raurana – Jakkana – Anantamatya – Koravi Goparaju – Nandi
Mallaya and Ghanta Singana – Ashta Diggaja Poets – Tallapaka Poets – Krishnadeva Raya –
Ponnaganti Telangana – Chemakura Venkataraju – King Poets of Tanjavore – Women Poets –
Kuchimanchi Poets – (Jaggana – Timmana).
b) Vemana, his philosophy – Observations and views on his times – his importance as commentator on
contemporary times – his relevance now.
a) Study of literary trends – Sailent features of the ages, forms etc., Itihasa – Purana Prabhandha –
Sataka – Folksong – Yakshagana – Samkertana Literature – Historical poem, Prose works classical
and Modern – Novel-short story – Essay - One Act Play, etc.
b) Classical and Neo-classical trends – Modern Age.
. Study of Modern Poets – Modern Trends – their works, Gurajada – Rayaprolu – Veereshalingam –
Chilakamarthi – Panuganti – Viswanatha, Devulapalli, Basavaraju, Pingali, Katuri, Duvvuri,
Puttaparthi, Sri Sri and leading Modern Poets – Trends – Romantic Movement – Progressive
Movement – Digambara Poets etc.
Study of Telugu Grammar and General Prosody – Balavyakaranam and Praudha Vyakaranam.
. Study of History and Evolution of Telugu language – From the early period of Modern period – The
place of Telugu among the language families of India in general and the Drvidian family in particular
Geographical positions and distribution – dialectal forms etc.
. Study of Philology – Linguistics and Semantics – Modern period: Evolution of Telugu through
linguistic and literary movements (like the spoken Telugu movements, etc.)
Study of Evolution of Telugu literature from the early period of Modern period covering all the ages.
I. Study of Aesthetics and Literary criticism (Eastern and Western outlook)
. Study of Sanskrit Grammar and Kavyas: Elementary knowledge of Sanskrit Grammar – Simple and
standard texts for prose and poetry – Hitopadesa and Kalidasa’s works.

I. 1. National Economic Accounting, National Income Analysis Generation and Distribution of Income and
related aggregates: Gross National Product, Net National Product, Gross Domestic Product & Net
Domestic Product (at market prices and factor costs): at constant and current prices.
2. Price Theory: Law of Demand: Utility analysis and Indifference Curve techniques, Consumer
equilibrium, Cost curves and their relationships; equilibrium of a firm under different market
structures; pricing of factors of Production.
3. Money and Banking: Definitions and functions of money (M1, M2 M3): Credit creation; Credit;
Sources, Costs and availability; theories of the Demand for money.
4. International Trade: The theory of comparative costs; Recardian Hockseher Ohlin; the balance of
payments and the adjustment mechanism. Trade theory and economic growth and development.
5. Economic growth and development; Meaning and measurement; characteristics of under
development; rate and pattern, Modern Growth; Sources of growth distribution and growth-problems
of growth of developing economics.
II. Indian Economy-India’s economy since Independence; trends in population growth since 1951,
Population and poverty; general trends in National Income and related aggregates; Planning in India
Objectives, Strategy and rate and pattern of growth; problems of Industrialization strategy;
Agricultural growth since Independence with special reference to food-grains; unemployment; nature
of the problem and possible solution, Public Finance and Economic Policy.
III. Identification of backward regions and the problems of regional development with special reference
to Andhra Pradesh.

Financial Management:
Corporation Finance – Economic and Managerial Aspects – Finance Education
Financial Plan – Operating and Financial leverage – Capital Structure determinants
Internal Financial Control – Ratio Analysis – Break-even Analysis – Sources and uses of funds
Concepts of valuation and cost of capital – Cost of Debt-Cost of preference capital – Cost of Equity
Capital – Cost of retained earnings – Weighted Cost of Capital.
Fundamentals of capital Budgeting – Evaluation of Investment opportunities – Pay back Accounting,
Rate of return – Discounted cash Flow Techniques.
Concepts of over and under capitalization – Working Capital Management – Management of
Inventories – Receivables and cash
Economics and Income retention – dividend policy - Financial aspects of expansion, reconstruction
and recognition
Industrial Organisation:
Concepts of Industry, Firm and Plant
Size of Units – Optimum firm and representation firm – Size in private and Public Sectors in India-
Problems and Policy implications – Multi-plant units – Multi Plant units in private and public sectors –
Economic problems and Policy size and efficiency.
Location – Concepts of location and localization – Location criteria – Factors influencing localization
– Measures of localization – Localisation pattern in Indian industry – Balanced Regional
Development – Location development of managers – Performance appraisal
State and Industry – Operational Control over Private Industry
Labour Economics and Industrial Relations.
Labour in Industrial Society – Man power problems of under-developed countries
Economics of the Labour Market – factors affecting supply and demand for labour – Concepts of full
employment, unemployment – different types of unemployment – Causes – Effects and remedial
measures, labour mobility – Absenteeism and turnover.
Social security and Labour welfare – Problems of Social security in a developing economy– Social
Security in India; Settlement of Industrial disputes – Machinery for the same
Collective bargaining – Objectives and methods – Issues in Bargaining
Tripartite bodies in Industrial Relations
Organisation concept – different approaches to the study of Organisation. Constraints over
organisational and managerial performance. Principles of organisation
Planning – Business Objectives – Social responsibilities of business
Authority, Power, Influence and the art of delegation, Span of Supervision
Line and Staff relationships
Bases and problems of departmentation
Centralisation and Decentralisation
Bureaucracy-Committee management
Top management functions and the role of the Board
Control functions in organisations
Group dynamics
Communication -Leadership – Motivation – Morale – Training and Development of managers –
Performance appraisal.

Real Analysis
: Continuity and differentiability of real functions.; Uniform continuity, Sequences and series
of functions. Uniform convergence. Functions of bounded variation. Riemann integration.
Complex “Analysis
: Analytic functions. Cauchy’s theorem Cauchy’s integral formula. Iaurent’s series.
Singularities. Theory of residues – Conformal mapping.
Abstract Algebra
: Groups – Sub-groups – normal sbugroups Quotient group Homomorphism –
Fundamental theorem of Hamomorphism, Permutation groups: Cayley’s theorem – Rings – Subrings –
Ideals – Fields – Polynomial rings.
Linear Algebra:
Vector spacers – Basis and dimension – Linear transformations – Matrices – Characteristic
roots and characteristic vectors – systems of linear equations – Canonicl forms – Cayley – Hamilton
Differential Equations
: First order ordinary differential equations (O.D.E) and their solutions – Singular
solutions. Intial value problems for first order O.D.E. General theory of homogeneous and non-
homogeneous linear differential equations, variation of parameters. Elements of first order partial
differential equations (PDE).
Co-ordinate Geometry of Three Dimentions: The Plane – The straight-line – Sphere and cone.

I. Mathematical Physics:
Vectors: Vector operators like DCI & grad, div. & curl. Surface and volume integrals – Theorems of Gauss,
Stokes, & Green.
Matrices: Quality, addition and subtraction, multiplication of matrices, inverse of a matrices, similarity and
unitary transformation Characteristic equation of a matrix Eigen values – Eigen vectors Square, diagonal,
unit, symmetric, and skewmatrix-Hermitian and unitary matrix.
Tensors: Tensors of any order –Transformation relation Covariant & Contra-variant tensors-Christoffel
Fourier Analysis: Trigonometric Fourier series – Evaluation of coefficients – Exponential Fourier series.
II. Classical Mechanics:
General Theorems of mechanics of mass points – Principales of Virtual work – De-Alember’s principle –
Lagrange’s equation of motion – Hamilton’s principle – Hamilton’s Equation of motion – Principle of lest
action – Canonical transformations = Poisson bracket. Rigid body motion – Euler’s theorem on rigid body
motion – moment of inertia-tensor – heavy Symmetrical top.
III. Electromagnetic Theory:
Generalisation of Ampere’s Law – Derivation of Maxwells equation – Pointing theorem – Transverse nature
of Electromagnetic waves – propagation & Conducting and non-conducting media – metallic reflection –
Propagation of light in crystalline media – Fresnel’s Theory of double refraction.
IV. Special Theory of Relativity:
Galilean Transformation – Newtonians Relativity – Michelson’s Morley Experiment – Postulates of special
theory of relativity Lorentz’s transformation – Relativistic particle mechanics Equivalence of mass & energy
– Covariance of Maxwell’s equation.
V. Statistical Mechanics:
Generalised coordinates & momenta-phase space, Liowellies Theorems – Maxwell Boltzman statistics –
Distribution of velocities and energy in ideal gas – Equipartition of energy – Vibrational, rotational, and
electronic partition functions for diatomic gas – specific heats of gas – Ortho and para hydrogen’s – Bose
Einstein & Fermi Dirac statistics – Bose Einstein gas and application to radiation – liquid helium – Free
electrons in metals.
VI. Quantum Mechanics:
Shordinger’s wave equation – Born interpretation of wave functions – Expectations values of dynamical
variables – Ehrenfests’ Theorem - Uncertainity Principle – Application of Shordinger’s equation to (a) One
dimensional squarewell potential (b) Simple harmonic Oscillator (c) Hydrogen atom.
Perturbation theory – First order and second order theories for non degenerate & degenerate systems –
Application to normal helium atom – Time dependent & time independent perturbation theory – Application
for each. Relativistic quantum mechanics – Klenn Garnian equation Dirac’s equation Solution for a free
particle meaning of negative energy states – Quantum theory of scattering – Born approximation.
VII. Electronics:
Vacuum: Tubes and semiconductor diodes – Principle and working of rectifier and power supply – Ripple
factor L and T section filters voltage stabilisation in power supplies characteristics of triode and pentode and
junction transistors their static characteristics – Voltage amplifiers – R.C. coupled amplifiers – and its
frequency response Negative feed back in amplifiers – Advantages of–Ve feed back – condition for
sinosoidal oscillations in transistor circuits Hartley and Colpitts oscillators–multi vibrators A stable–
Monostable and bi-stable type–Pulse generator–Saw tooth voltage generator Cathode–ray oscilloscope
VIII. Solid State Physics:
Crystallography – Classification of solids – Point group and space group – Crystal systems – Specification
of planes and directions – Elements of X-ray diffraction – Various crystal bindings – Metallic, ionic, co-valent
molecular and hydrogen bonded crystals – Band theory of solids – motion of electrons in periodic potential
Block’s theorem Kronig’s penny model – energy bands – Brillouin zones – distinction between insulators –
Metals and Semi-conductors on band theory.
IX. Nuclear Physics:
Radioactivity, Chain dis-integration, transient and secular equilibrium – Age of rocks and Radio carbon
dating – alpha decay or Gamow’s theory – Beta decay and nutrino Interaction of gamma rays with matter –
Selection rules – nuclear models – Liquid drop model – semi empirical mass formula – criteria for stability
against spontaneous decay – Shell model – nuclear detectors – Ionisation – Chambers – G.M. counters –
Proportional counters – bubble and spark chambers – Semi-conductor detectors.
X. Spectrocopy:
Bohr – Sommerfield theory of Hydrogen atoms – Space quantisation – fine structure of spectral lines –
Alkali spectra – Zeeman effect Vector atom model of one electron system – Paschen – Back effect – Stark
effect in Hydrogen atoms – Band spectra – Types of band spectra-I.R. and Raman effect. Isotope effect –
Franck – Candon Principle.

Inorganic Chemistry:
1. Atomic structure & Chemical Bonding – Quantum theory Schrodinger – wave equation – Hydrogen
atom,Hydrogen molecule – Elements on valence bond – molecular orbital theories.
2. Determination of molecular structure – X – ray and electron diffraction methods.
3. Periodic classification (Classical and modern) periodic functions of elements – atomic volume – atomic
radious electronegativity-oxidation states – lattice energy and their applications.
4. Chemistry of d-block elements – Physical and chemical characteristics of the transition elements –
Characteristics related to electronic arrangements oxidation states – colow magnetic properties –
Complex formation – interstitial L-S couping – Hund’s rule. A General study of the first transition
5. Chemistry of F-block elements – Lanthanons and Actinons – electronic configurations – oxidation’s
states – Separation of Lanthanons and Actinons.
6. Chemistry of complex compounds: Jourgenson and werner’s views – effective atomic number –
valence bond theory – Introductory treatment of crystalfield theory applied to complexes with co-
ordination number 6.
7. Isomerism in complexes: Geometrical and optical isomerism of four and six co-ordinated complexes.
Pearson’s theory of hard and soft acids and bases.
8. Study of the following elements and their modern Chemistry Be, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Mo, W, U, and Th.
9. Alloys: Interimettalic compounds.
Physical Chemistry:
10. Radio activity: Elementary account of nuclear structure natural and artificial radio activity –
characterisation of relations – decay chains-half-life-decay constant and average life. Radio-active
series, atomic transmutation – atomic fission and fusion reactions and their applications – nuclear
isomers and their separations.
11. Kinetic theory of gases: Equations of state – critical constants – States of aggregation – liquid states –
viscocity – physical properties an chemical constitution – collision theory of derivation of the collision –
number from Kinetic theory of gases.
12. Chemical Kinetics: order and molecularity of reaction first order and second order reactions – law of
mass action – influence of temperature and pressure – thermo-dynamic derivation of Law of mass
action – unimolecular reactions Lindemann’s theory.
13. Thermodynamics: First law of thermodynamics and its applications to ideal gases, energy and
enthalpy changes in gases, heat capacities of gases and their inter-relation. Isothermal and adiabatic
processes – Kirchoff’s equation and its applications – Vant Hoff’s isotherm isochore equilibria in
heterogeneous system. Second Flaw of thermo dynamics (Joules and Joule Thomson experiments).
Entropy change in an isolated system for reversible and irrevbersible processes – Variation on entropy
of a system with temperature and pressure.
Organic Chemistry:
14. Heterocylic compounds and chemistry of nutral products – Importance of heterocyclic compounds –
classification based on the natury of heterocetom, size of the ring and II excessive and II deficient
nature of the ring.
A general and comparative study of Furan pyrole and thiophene Ring transformations. General
comparison with benzenoidd compounds, pyridine, quinotine, Isoquinoline and acrdine-fII deficient
nature of heterocylic rings – case of nucleophilic substitution.
15. Methods of synthesis, reactivity and properties of the following polynuclear aromatic compounds:
anthracene, Benzanthracene, Phenontherene Chryeneand picene.
16. Benzopyrones : Couamarins and Chromones.
17. Alkaloids: General occurrence, reactions and degradations. Chemical and Physico-Chemical methods
for the elucidation of structures-synthesis and structural elucidation of the following alakaloids –
atropine – cocaine - quinene – Narcotine – papaverine.
18. Organic reaction mechanism: Structure and reactivity of organic molecules – Factors affecting
Electron density in a band-inductive, induct rometric, mesomeric, (reasonance) and electrometric
effects, hyperconjugation – Dipole moments-acedic and basic strength of organic Compounds.
Modern concepts of organic reaction mechanisms – Addition, substitution and elimination reactions –
simple examples and their mechanism. The intermediate carboniumion formation and its participation
in organic reactions. Addition C-C, system-pinocol-pincolene rearrange rearrangements. Automatic
substitution – Formation and hydrolysis of esters.
19. Some name reactions: Wurtz-Friedel-Crafts, Fries-Gatter-mann – Perin – Beckmann’s rearrangements
and Grignard reactions.
20. Carbohydrates: General reactions of monosaccha rides – configurational studies on glucose, fructose,
sucrose, Recent advances in the Chemistry of cellulose and starch.
21. Proteins – Introduction to proteins – their classification – Nomenclature and distribution in nature
simple, amino acids – Isolation and their synthesis.

22. General Ideas regarding the chemistry of vitamins & Harmones nicotine, B-Carotene and Vitamin C.
23. Alicyclic compounds: Synthesis and reactions Bayers strain theory – Factors affecting stability of
conformation – terpenes – citral – gerniol – limonenene – terpinol – pinene and camphor.
24. Stereo Chemistry: Opticnal and geometrtic isomerism configuration of saturated molecues – DL and
RS configuration of optically active compound-racemic – mixtures – racemisation and resolution.
25. Molecular spectra: NMR, Chemical shift – Spin – Spincoupling – ESR of simple radicals – Rotational
Spectra, diatomic molecules, linear triatomic molecules, isotopic substitution – Vibrational and Raman
Physical Chemistry:
26. Electro-Chemistry: Equivalent conductance and its measurement. The independent migration of jons
– kholraush’s Law. Transport number and their determination. Ionic mobilities. Equivalent
conductance of weak and strong electrolytes. Inter-ionic attraction theory treated quantitatively-
Debye-huckle-onsager equation. Determination of solubilities from conductance measurements -–
Conductometric titration’s.
Ionic product of water and its determination from conductance and EMF methods – theories of acids
and bases – Hydrogen ion concentration and its measurements from E.M.F.measurements using
Hydrogen quin – hydroen and glass electrodes – Buffer solutions – Henderson’s equation
potentiometric titration’s – Determinations of equilibrium constant and solubilities from
E.M.F.measurements – Gibbs – Helmbholtz equation and its application to chemical cells.
27. Photo – Chemistry: Laws on absorption of light – Gretius – Draper Laws – Einstiens Law in Chain
reactions – Hydrogen chlorine reactions – absorption – Laws of absorption.
28. Surface Chemistry and catalysis – Absorption isotherms, surface area determination, heterogeneous
catalysis, acid-base and enzyme cotolysis.

I. Bacteria and Viruses:
1. General Account of viruses. Definition, Characterisation, Chemistry, Ultrasturcture, Composition,
replication, Bacteriaphages, transmission of plant viruses, Importance.
2. General account of bacteria – Characteristics, shape, ultrastructure of the cell, nutrition, reproduction,
classification and importance.
II. Plant Pathology:
1. Disease symptoms produced by Bacteria, Fungi, and Viruses.
2. A general account of important diseases of crop plants and their control:
a) Late blight of potato f) Leaf spot of rice.
b) Smuts (Wheat, Jowar) g) Citrus cancer
c) Rust of wheat h) Bacterial blight of paddy.
d) Leaf spot of groundnut. i) Angular leaf spot of cotton.
e) Paddy blast. j) Mosaic of Tobacco.
3. Mycoplasma.
4. Control of plant diseases (A general account)
III. Algae (Phycology)
1. Introduction and general classification of Algae.
2. Criteria for the classification.
3. Thallus organization in Algae.
4. Economic importance of Algae.
5. General characters, structure, Reproduction, pigments, phylogeny, life cycles etc., of main groups in
Algae with reference to Genera Given:
Cyanophyceae (Nostoc, Scytonema, Oscillatoria).
Chlorophyceae (Chlamydomonas, Volvox, Cladeopora, Oedogonium, Coleochaete, Chara).
(c) Bacillariaphyceae – General Account.
Xanthophyceae – Vautheria]
Phaeophyceae (Ectocarpus, Laminaria)
(f) Rhedophyceae (Polysiphonia, Gracillaria)
IV. Fungi (Mycology):
1. General Characters of fungi. Occurrence and thallus structure of fungi. Nutritional aspects of Fungi
(Saprophytism, parasitism, Symbiosis). Modes of reproduction (Sexual and Asexual). Life cycle in
fungi. Criteria for classification of fungi. Classificatory systems.
2. General characters, morphology, reproduction, phylogeny, affinities etc., of the following : main groups
with special reference to Genera given below:
a) Mytomycetes (stemonites).
b) Plasmodiophoromycetes (Plasmodiphora).
c) Mastigormycotina (Saprolegnia, Phytopthera).
d) Zygomycotina (Mucor).
e) Ascomycotina (Taphnina Eurotium, Erysiphe, Pleospora Neuropora).
f) Basidiomycotina (Puccinia, Agaricus).
g) Deuteromycotina (Cercospora, Colletotrichum, Phoma).
3. Economic importance of Fungi.
V. Bryophyta:
1. General characters of Bryophyta.
2. Sporophyte evolution in Bryophytes.
3. Classification of Bryophytes.
4. General account of the following main groups.
a) Hepaticopsida, (b) Anthoceratopsida, (c) Bryopsida.
5. Structure, reproduction and systematics of the following genera:
a) Marchantia, (b) Anthoceros, (c) Sphagmum (d) Funaria.
VI. Pteridophyta:
1. General characters of pteridophytes.
2. Classification of pteridophytes.
3. General characters of the following main groups:
a) Psilopsida; b) Lycopsida; c) Sphenopsida (Eusporangiate and Leptosporangiates):
4. Morphology, anatomy, reproduction and affinities of the following genera:
a) Psilotum; b) Lycopodium; c) Selaginella; d) Ophioglostum; e) Marsilea; f) Pteris.

VII. Palaeobotany:
1. Fossil pteridophytes .
2. Origin and evolution of land plants.
3. Homospory, Heterospory and Origin of Seed.
4. Telome theory and origin of sporophyte.
5. General account of the following fossil Gymnosperms.
a) Pteridosperms; b) Bennittitales; c) Cordaitales; d) Pentoxylales.
VIII. Gymnosperms:
1. Gymnosperms.
2. Comparative account of morphology, life history, Affinities etc. of the following:
a) Cycadophyta – Cycas, Zarnia,
b) Coniferophyta – Pinus.
c) Ginkgophyta – Gintgo.
d) Chlamydospermatophyta : Ephedra, Welwetschia, Gnetum.
3. Classification of Gymnosperms.
IX. Taxonomy of Angiosperms:
1. Systems of classification: - Hutchinson, Takhtajan, Bessey, Engler and Prantl, Bentham and Hooker.
2. Principles of taxonomy:- Criteria of classification, categories of classification, Diversity of Phyletic
3. International code of Botanical nomenclature, principles, Typification, Citation and authority.
4. Recent trends in Taxonomy:
a) Biosystematics; b) Chemataxonomy; c) Serodiagnostic test and classification,
d) Numerical taxonomy.
5. Study of the following families with reference to their characterstics, economic importance, attributes
a) Ranuculacease, e) Malvaceae, i) Apocynaceae, m) Solanaceae,
b) Caryophyllaceae, f) Tiliacee, j) Asclepiadaceae, n) Euphorbiaceae,
c) Sterculiaceae, g) Rubiaceae, k) Boraginaceae, o) Poaceae.
d) Sapotaceae, h) Compositae, l) Convolvulaceae,
X. Anatomy and Cell Biology:
1. Ultra structure of the cell and cell organelles along with their functions.
2. Cell wall structure.
3. Tissue and Tissue systems.
4. Meristems – Shoot and root apices.
5. Normal and anamolom Secondary growth.
XI. Embryology:
1. Concept of primitive flower.
2. Development of anther and ovule.
3. General account of Embryosac and types of Embryo.
4. Fertilization.
5. Endosperm morphology and types.
6. Polyembryony and apomixis.
XII. Cytology, Genetics and Evolution:
1. Mitosis and Meiosis.
2. Chromosome (Morphology, Structures importance etc.).
3. Concept of gene, laws of inheritance gene action.
4. Genetic code.
5. Linkage and crossing over.
6. Parasexuality.
7. General account of Mutations
8. Polyploidy and its role in crop improvement.
9. Origin of life.
XII. Ecology and Phytogeography :
1. Ecosystem: - Concept, boitic and abiotic components, ecological pyramids, productivity.
2. Geo-chemical cycles.
(Carbon, Nitrogen, Sulphur, Phosphorous cycles).
3. Plant succession – Xerosere and Hydrosere.
4. Floristic regions of the world.
5. Floristic zones of India.

XIV. Physiology:
1. Absorption and translocation of water.
2. Transpiration and stomatal behaviour.
3. Absorption and uptake of Ions, Donnan’s equilibrium.
4. Role of micronutrients in plant growth.
5. Translocation of solutes.
6. Respiration (Glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt, structure and role of mitochondria, Krebs cycle,
Oxidative phosphorylation, Photorespiration, Respiratory quotient, Fermentation, Pasteur effect
Factors affecting).
7. Photosynthesis: - light and dark reaction, Red drop, Emerson effect, Two pigment systems,
Mechanism of Hydrogen transfer, Calvin cycle, Enzymes of CO2 reduction, Hatch a slack cycle C4
cycle, CAM Pathway, Factors affecting photosynthesis, Pigments.
8. The enzymes: Nomenclature and classification, structure and composition, Mode of enzyme action,
Factors affecting.
9. Nitroge, Metabolism and bio, synthesis of proteins Nitrogen fixation, Nitrogen cycle, (Physical and
biological) Nitrogen assimilation Amino acid, metabolism, Biosynthesis of proteins.
10. Plant hormones Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Abscissic acid (General account).
XV. Economic Botany:
1. Cultivation, economic importance, systematic position and morphology of the following plants.
(a) Rice (e) Sugarcane (I) Coffee (m) Rauwolfia
(b) Wheat (f) Groundnut (j) Tea (n) Pigeon pea
(c) Jowar (g) Sun flower (k) Jute (o) Pearl millet.
(d) Cotton (h) Castor (l) Cardamom
XVI. Recent Aspects of Botany:
1. Modern techniques
a) Electron microscopy, e) Electrophoresis
b) Phase contrast microscopy f) The tracer technique
c) Spectro photometry g) Auto radiography
d) Chromatography h) Sero-diagnostic methods.
2. Genetic engineering.
3. Plant tissue culture.
4. Alternative sources of Energy.
5. Social forestry.
6. Microorganisms as tools in understanding biological systems.
7. Environmental pollution (Water, soil, air) health hazards and control.

Non-chordata and Chordata:
1. Protozoa-Classification of protozoa (Honigberg), Locomotion in Protozoa, Nutrition in protozoa,
Reproduction in protozoa, Diseases of Protozoa, Economic importance of Protozoa.
2. Porifera: Canal system in porifera, skeleton in porifera, Reproduction in sponges.
3. Coelenterata : Polymorphism in coelenteratas, Metagenesis coral formation, etenophora.
4. Hemlinths: Common Helminthic parasites of Man – Taenia solium, Schistosoma sp., Ascaris,
Ancylostoma, Oxyuris Loa, Trichinella, Strongyloides – their life cycles, Parasitism.
5. Annelida: Excretory system in Annelida, Coelome formation.
6. Arthropoda: Mouthparts of Insects, crustacean larvae, parasitisim in crustacea, useful and harmful
insects, Metamorphosis in insects. Apiculture and sericulture in India.
7. Mollusca: Respiritation in Mollusca, Torsion and Detorsion, pearl formation and Pearl industry.
8. Echinodermata: Echinoderm larvae.
Origin of Chordata, phylogeny and affinities of Hemichordata Retrogressive metamorphosis,
Comparative account of Respiratory, Circulatory, Excretory and Reproductive systems of
Vertebrates. Pisciculture in India, Common edible fishes of A.P., Origin and classification of
Amphibia, Paedogenesis.
Temporal fossae in Reptilia, Important snakes of India, Dinosaurs.
Adaptations of flight in birds, Migration of birds. Poultry in India.
Adaptive radiation in Mammals, Aquatic Mammals, useful Mammals, Dentition in Mammals.
Evolution of placentalia.
Cell Biology Genetics, Physiology, Evolution, Embryology, Histology, Ecology.
Cell Biology: Ultra structure of the Cell-Plasma membrane – Mitochondria, Golgibodies, Nucleus,
Endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes. Chromosomes and their fine structure. Mitosis and meiosis-
D.N.A. & R.N.A. and geneic code, Protein synthesis.
Genetics: Mendel’s law of inheritance – Critical review. Linkage, crossing over, Sex linked
inheritance, Mutations, Inborn errors of Metabolism, Human genetics.
Physiology: Vitamins; Enzymes; Carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism; Osmoregulation,
Thermoregulation; Excretion in Vertebrates; Muscle contraction; Nerve Impulse; vertebrate
harmones and Mammalian reproduction.
Evolution: Origin of life – Modern concepts, theories of Evolution, Isolation, Speciation, Natural
Selection, Hardy weinberg'’ Law, Population genetics and evolution, Adaptations, Evolution of Man.
Zoogeographical realms of the world.
Embryology: Cleavage patterns; Gastrulation and its significance in development of vertebrates;
Formation and functions of Foetal membranes, Types of placenta, organisers, Regeneration, genetic
control of development organogenesis of central nervous system, sense organs, heart and kidney of
vertebrate embryos.
Histology: Histology of Mammalian tissues and organs – Epithelial, connective, blood, bone,
cartilage, skin, stomach, intestine, liver, pancreas, kidney, Testis and ovary.
Ecology: Concept of Ecosystem, Biogoechemical cycles, influence of environmental factors on
animals, energy flow in Ecosystem, food chains & Tropic levels, community ecology. Ecological
Succession, Environmental Pollution – Air, water, land, Noise, Radioactive, thermal and Visual,
Effects of Pollution on ecosystem, Prevention of Pollution.
Wild life in India – Conservation.
Man & Biosphere Programme – Chipko movement.

Ancient India:
1. Harappan Civilisation -- Extent, major cities, Characterstic features, social and economic conditions,
script, religious paractices, causes for the decline.
2. Vedic Age: Importance of Vedic literature, political, social and economic conditions in the early and
later vedic age.
3. India in the 6
Century B.C.: Social and economic conditions, Rise and spread of jainism and
4. Mauryan Age: political history of the Mauryans, Ashoka, Mauryan Administration, Social and
economic conditions, decline of the Mauryan empire.
5. The Sathavahanas: political history, administration, contribution to the culture.
6. Gupta period: Political history, administration, social and economic conditions, growth of culture,
decline of the empire.
7. India in the 7
Century A.D.: Harsha vardhana, Pallavas and Chalukyas, their political history and
their contribution to culture.
Medieval India:
8. India between 650 and 1200 A.D. -- political, Social and economic conditions, Chola administration
and culture, Sankaracharya.
9. Age of the Delhi Sultanate: (1206-1526), Military and Administrative organisation. Changes in
Society and economy, Bhakthi movement.
10. The Vijayanagar Empire: Origin, History, Krishnadevaraya, Social and economic conditions, growth
of culture, decline.
11. Mughal Age (1556-1707): political history, Akbar, Administration, Social and Economic conditions,
culture, decline of the Mauryan empire Maharattas and Shivaji.
Modern India (1757-1947):
12. Historical forces and factors which led to the establishment of the British power in India -Early
resistance to the British power in India - Hyder Ali, Tippu Sultan, causes for their failure.
13. Evolution of British paramountcy in India: Policies of Wellesley and Dalhousie.
14. Socio-religious reform movements Rajaram Mohan Roy, Dayananda Saraswathi and others.
15. Revolt of 1857: Causes, results, significance.
16. Rise and growth of the Indian National Movement: Birth of the Indian National Congress, the
national movement from 1885 to 1905; movement from 1905 to 1920. Role of Tilak and Annie
Besant; The movement from 1920 to 1947; Emergence of Gandhi; Non-cooperation movement, Salt
Satyagraha and the Quit India Movement.
Freedom movement in Andhra Pradesh with special reference to the role ofAlluri Sitharama Raju
and Tanguturi Prakasam, Revolt against the Nizam's rule in Telengana.
Modern world:
17. Industrial Revolution - Significance and results.
18. American war of Independence courses, significance and results.
19. French Revolution - Courses, significance and effects.
20. National Liberation movements in Italy and Germany in the 19
Century - Mazzini, Cavour, Garivildi,
21. I World War - Causes and effects.
22. The Russian Revolution of 1917 - Causes, importance and results.
23. The World between the two world wars - Nazisms in Germany, Fascism in Italy. Turkey under
Mustafa Kamal Pasha
24. Developments in China 1911-1949 – Nationalist Revolution of 1911 – Communist Revolution of
25. II World War -- Causes and effects.

1, State: Theories of origin of State. Rights and Duties, Law, Liberty and Equality. Nation & Nationality
– Forms of Government Press – Pressure Groups and parties
2. Ideologies: Utilitarianism – Individualism – Idealism. Theories of Socialism – Gandhian philosophy
3. Theories of Decision making – Behaviouralism – System Theory, Elite Theory – Structural functional
decision-making and Game Theory.
4. Nature of Indian Constitution – Fundamental Rights – Directive Principles of state policy legislature –
Executive and Judiciary – Judicial Review – Centre-State relations – Problems of National
5. United Nations and Collective Security – Concept of power in International Relations – Balance of
Power, Cold-wars d├ętente. Arms Control and Disarmament.
6. Problems of Third World. New Colonialism – Non-alignment India’s role in world affairs.

1. Meaning and scope of Public Administration – Its relations with other Social Sciences – The Art and
Science of Public Administration
2. Theories of Administration – Classical, Human Relations, Ecological, Systems approach – Decision-
3. Concept of Development - Administration and Comparative Administration
4. Concept of Administration: Hierarchy, Span of Control, Co-ordination, Unity of Command,
Centralisation and Decentralisation, Authority and responsibility, Formal and Informal Organisation,
Decision making, Leadership, Administrative Planning, Communication, Work motivation,
Management Information system.
5. Types of Organisation: Departments, Corporations, Independent Regulatory Commissions.
6. Administrative adjudications, Delegated Legislation
7. Controls over Administration – Legislative, Executive, Judicial
8. Personnel Administration – Recruitment, Promotion, All India Services, Political Rights of Civil
Servants – Right to strike – Negotiating Machinery – Generalist versus Specialisits – Controversy,
Citizens Grievances – Lok Ayukta and Lokpal; the A.P. Administrative Tribunal.
9. Financial Administration – Principles of Budgeting, Performance Budgeting, PPBS, Budgeting in
India, Organisation and Role of Finance Ministry
10. Centre- State and State-Local Relations in India
11. Planning in India – Planning Commission, Planning Process at National and State levels – Concept
of Block Planning
12. State Administration – Organisation, Secretariat, Minister – Civil Servant relations – Directorates –
Boards of Revenue, Functional Commissioners, Regional Administration, Divisional Commissioners,
District Administration
13. Local Government; Theories of Local Government – Organisation, Process, Functions and working
of Panchayat Raj Institutions in Andhra Pradesh, Municipal Administration in Andhra Pradesh; Urban
Development Authorities; Official – Non-Official relations in local Government relations.

I. Study of the following ten authors and poets:
1. Kabir
2. Tusdidas
3. Bihari
4. Surdas
5. Acharya Ramachandra Shukla
6. Premchand
7. Prasad
8. Pant
9. Nirala
10. Dinakar
II. Appreciation of the popular couplets of Tulsi, Kabir, Rahim, Vrinda etc., and a few lines from modern
poets of Prasad, Pant etc.
III. Origin and development of prominent literary genres in modern Hindi, e.g. Novel, Short Story,
Drama, Criticism.
IV. The study of the following eight trends of the history of Hindi Literature.
1. Gyan Margi Shakha
2. Prem Margi Shakha
3. Ram Bhakti Shakha
4. Krishna Bhakti Shakha
5. Riti kavya
6. Chayavada
7. Pragativada
8. Nai Kavita
V. History of various aspects of Hindi Language, eg:
1. Grammatical and lexical features of Apabhransa, Avahatta and early Hindi.
2. Evolution of Khari Boli Hindi as literary language during 19
3. Development of Hindi as Rastra Bhasha during freedom struggle and as official
language of Indian Union since Independence.
4. Major Dialects of Hindi and their inter-relationship
5. Functional and significant grammatical features of standard Hindi
6. Origin and development of Devanagari script and its role in standardization of Hindi

01. The study of the following Ten Authors and Poets:
1. Mohammad Quli Qutub Shah 6. Sir Syed.
2. Wali. 7. Hali.
3. Meer. 8. Iqbal.
4. Anees. 9. Premchand.
5. Ghalib. 10. Krishna Chander.
02. Appreciation of couplets of renowned poets.
03. The Study of the following eight trends of the History of Urdu Literature.
1. Development of Urdu under the Qutubshahis, and the Adil Shahis.
2. Delhi School.
3. Lucknow School.
4. Fort William College.
5. Alighar movement.
6. Iqbal and his Age.
7. The Contribution of Jamia Osmania.
8. Impact of progressive movement.
04. Study of various aspects of Language and Literature.


1. General Science – Contemporary developments in Science and Technology and their implications
including matters of every day observation and experience, as may be expected of a well-educated
person who has not made a special study of any scientific discipline.
2. Current events of national and international importance.
3. History of India – emphasis will be on broad general understanding of the subject in its social,
economic, cultural and political aspects with a focus on AP Indian National Movement.
4. World Geography and Geography of India with a focus on AP.
5. Indian polity and Economy – including the country’s political system- rural development – Planning
and economic reforms in India.
6. Mental ability – reasoning and inferences.
1. Comprehension
2. Precis-writing
3. Re-arrangement of sentences
4. Correction of sentences
5. Synonyms
6. Antonyms
7. Filling in the blanks
8. Correction of spellings
9. Vocabulary and usage
10. Idioms and phrases
11. Verb tenses
12. Prepositions
13. Active voice and Passive voice
14. Parts of speech
(Candidate should write three Essays one from each section compulsorily. Each section contains
three topics. Each Essay carries 50 marks.)
SECTION-I : Crisis management, Social problems, Analysis and solutions.
SECTION-II : Current events of national and international importance.
SECTION –III : Current events relating to State of Andhra Pradesh.

1. Indus Civilization – Vedic Civilization – Distinction between Indus Civilisation and Vedic
Civilisation – Evolution of Varna, Jathi/caste system – Religious condition – Emergence of
Religious Movements (Jainism, Buddhism and other sects) – Rise of Magadha Imperialism –
Rise of Mahayana and Development of Art (Gandhara, Mathura and other Schools).
2. Advent of Islam and its impact – Influence of Islam on Indian Culture – Religious Movements
– Nature and significance of Bhakti Movements – Growth of vernacular languages, literature,
fine arts, architecture, monuments, Indo-Persian art and architecture - Vijayanagara empire
and their contribution to art, literature and culture – socio-economic conditions, administration,
fall of Vijayanagar empire – the Great Moghals and their contribution to Indian Fine Art,
Architecture and Fine Arts – Rise of Shivaji.
3. Stages of colonialism – changes in administrative structure and politics – factors leading for
the British supremacy, assistance of Indian Powers and the causes of failures – Civil rebellions
– Revolt of 1857 and its impact – Rise of nationalist consciousness and factors for the growth
of Indian Nationalism and Freedom Struggle : Three Phases :1885-1905, 1905-1920, 1920-47
and significance of Gandhian Era.
4. Rise and growth of Socio-Religious-cultural – anti-caste, Dalit and non-Brahmin, Justice/self-
respect movements in modern India – Social reform organisations and role of intellectuals –
Raja Ram Mohan Roy - Dayanand Saraswathi - Jyotiba Phule - Narayana Guru - Mahathma
Gandhi - Ambedkar and others.
5. Nationalist Literature – growth of peasant and labour movements – role of leftist parties in anti-
feudal and anti-colonial struggles-rise and growth of Women’s movements – origin and growth
of communalism – workers and peasant movements –freedom and partition of India; important
historical events after independence.
1. The Satavahanas and their contribution – social structure – religious conditions – growth of
literature and painting – Ikshvakus and their cultural contribution – Growth of Buddhism in
Andhra Pradesh – The Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi and their importance – socio-cultural
contribution – growth of Telugu language & Literature – education and learning – Religious
Sects – growth of art and architecture.
2. Socio- Cultural and Religious conditions in Andhra Desha between 1000 AD – 1565 AD
Growth of Telugu Language and Literature – Nannaya- Molla etc., fine arts and
architecture – Monuments – Significance – Contribution of Qutubshahis to Telugu
language and Literature – Art- Architecture- Monuments.
3. Modern Andhra - Socio-cultural awakening in Andhra – Brahma Samaj, Arya Samaj,
Theosohica society – Adi-Andhra, Movements and role of Veereshalingam and others –
Non-Brahmin, Adi- Andhra /Dalit and Justice/self – respect movements – Gurram Joshuva
– Boyi Bheemanna – Sri Sri and others – Growth of Nationalist Movement in Andhra and
the Andhra Leaders during the Freedom Struggle – Role of socialists – communists – anti-
zamindari-kisan movements.
4. Asafjahi Dynasty – socio-cultural awakening in Telangana -Adi-Hindu Movement – Nizam
Rashtra Janasangham – Andhra Mahasabha – Andhra Saaraswata Parishat – The role of
Hyderabad State Congress and Vandemataram Movement.
5. Telangana People’s Armed Struggle – Ittehadul-Muslimeen – Razakars-anti-Nizam
Struggles and end of Nizam’s Rule and integration of Hyderabad State in Indian Union –
Formation of Andhra Pradesh.

1. Nature of the Constitution – constitutional developments – salient features – Preamble –
Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy and their relationship -
Fundamental Duties, Distinctive features of Indian Federation.
2. Distribution of Legislative Powers between the Union and the State; Administrative and
Financial relations between the Union and the States – Powers and the functions of
Constitutional Bodies.
3. Unicameral and Bicameral Legislatures – Functions and crises of accountability, decline of
legislature - Delegated Legislation – Legislative and Judicial control over the delegated
legislation – Judicial review of administrative action.
4. Amendment of the Constitution – Basic Structure Theory – Emergency Provisions and De-
centralisation – Community development experiment – 3 tier model of Panchayat Raj –
and 74
amendments and their implementation.
5. Welfare Mechanism in India: Provisions for scheduled castes, Tribes and Minorities;
Reservations for SC, ST and Backward classes; Prevention of SC and ST Atrocities Act;
National and State SC and ST Commission; Women’s Commission; National and State
Minorities Commission and Human Rights Commission.
6. National and per capita income and human development - Sectoral changes in the Indian
Economy (GDP and work force).
7. Indian Planning – Objectives, priorities, specific aims of the recent 5 year plan-- experience
and problems. Changes in the role of public-Private Sectors and their shares in the total
plan outlay before and after economic reforms.
8. Poverty and unemployment problems-- magnitude and measures initiated to ameliorate
9. Monetary policy – Structure of Indian Banking and non-banking financial institutions and
reforms in them since the 1990s—regulation of credit by RBI.
10. Pattern of revenue, expenditure and public debt and effects on the economy.
1. Historical background of land reforms and the change in laws from time to time –
Intermediaries abolition, tenancy reforms, ceilings on holdings and land issues in A.P.
2. Structure of the Andhra Pradesh economy - its sectoral and regional distribution and the
extent of poverty. Agricultural inputs and technology.
3. Demographic features and social backwardness, literacy and occupation structure;
changes in the sectoral distribution of income and employment. Socio-political and
economic empowerment of women.
4. State finances and budgetary policy – tax structure, sharing central taxes, expenditure
pattern in revenue and capital account as well as plan and non-plan accounts. Public debt
– composition - internal and external debt including World Bank loans.
5. Five year plans of AP – Outlays, financing public sector plan and resource allocation
pattern in the recent 5 year plan.

1. Growth and structure of industries in AP; Factories, small and tiny sectors, their
comparison, growth, weaknesses and problems.
2. Structure of agricultural outputs. Administrated prices including support and procurement
prices - Public Distribution System in Andhra Pradesh.
3. Regional disparities in income, industrial output, rainfall, irrigation, health and education in
4. Institutional and non-institutional sources of rural credit in AP - structure and growth -
cooperatives and their share in total credit - adequacy and problems.
5. Service Sector of AP – Importance, composition and growth with special reference to
transport and communication, tourism and information technology.
UNIT 1: National policy of science and technology and changes in the policy from time to time,
Technology Missions.
UNIT 2: Space programme in India and its applications with special reference to industrial, agricultural
and other rural developmental activities, INSAT and IRS systems.
UNIT 3: Role of Information Technology in Rural India, basics of computers, computers in
communication and broadcasting, software development in economic growth. Broad IT applications.
UNIT 4: Energy Resources: Energy demands, renewable energy resources, nuclear energy, the
development and its utilisation in the country.
UNIT 5: Current Science & Technology Developments in India, Climate change, Disaster
Management (Floods, Cyclones and Tsunami); Crop science in India, Fertilisers, Control of pests and
diseases – scenario in India; Drinking water and supply, urbanisation and industrial development.
UNIT 1: Progress of Agricultural Science and its impacts - Introduction to Biotechnology: History of
fermentation development, industrially important fermentation products (antibiotics, organic acids,
alcohols, vitamins, amino acids (only one in each category is to be studied)) Production of low
volume, high value fermentation products (insulin, growth hormones, recombinant vaccines,
UNIT 2: Plants and human affairs, characteristics of plants, usefulness for mankind, origin of
agriculture, useful and harmful plants. Introduction to animals, Domestic and wild animals, usefulness
of animals for mankind, Exploitation of animals by man for food and medical advancements.
UNIT 3: Introduction to and applications of Genetic Engineering & Stem Cell Research: Basic
concepts (the basic process of genetic engineering) – Biotechnology in agriculture (Biofertilisers,
Biopesticides, Biofuels, Genetically modified crops, Tissue culture) animal husbandry (transgenic
animals- applications) and environment (Biotechnology in Environmental clean up processes).
UNIT 4: Microbial infections ; Common present day infections and preventive measures. Introduction
to bacterial, viral, protozoal and fungal infections. Basic knowledge of infections caused by different
groups of micro organisms – diarrhoea, dysentry, cholera, tuberculosis, malaria, viral infections like
HIV, encephalitis, chikungunya, bird flu – preventive measures during out breaks.
UNIT 5: Vaccines: Introduction to immunity, Fundamental concepts in vaccination and traditional
methods of vaccine production (production of DPT and Rabies vaccine), Production of Modern
Vaccines (production of Hepatitis vaccine), Applications of immunological methods in diagnosis.

UNIT 1: Environmental Segments, Promoting Environmental Protection, The Environment (Protection)
Act, Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, Water (Prevention and control of pollution) Act,
Water pollution Cess Act, Forest conservation Act, Environmentalism
UNIT 2: Natural Resources: Forest Resources – Types of Forests, Uses of Forests. Water
Resources- Types of Dams, Drought Occurrences and Floods, Land Resources: Soils and Cropping
patterns, Mineral resources.
UNIT 3: Eco-Systems and Bio-diversity: Terminology of Ecology, Basic Concepts of Ecology, concept
of an Ecosystem, Food Chains in Eco systems, Types of Eco systems. Biodiversity and its
conservation: Types of biodiversity, Hotspots of Biodiversity, threats to diversity.
UNIT 4: Environment Pollution and Solid Waste Management: Air Pollution, water pollution, Soil
Pollution, Noise pollution. Solid Waste Management: Types of Solid waste, Factors affecting the
solid waste generation, Impact of solid wastes, Recycling and reuse.
UNIT 5: Role of Information Technology in Environment and Human Health. Global Environmental
Issues like Climate Change, Acid Rain, Global warming, Wasteland Reclamation, Watershed
management, watershed approach for sustainable development.
1. Data appreciation and interpretation using ratios, percentages and averages.
2. Drawing conclusions from the data present in tabular, graphical and diagrammatical forms and
to point out deficiencies, limitations or inconsistencies therein.
3. Problem solving using the following:
a) Sequences and Series: Analogies of numbers and alphabets, completion of blank spaces
in a:b,c,d, odd thing out, missing number in a sequence or series.
b) Coding and decoding problems: A given word or group of letters in English are to be coded
or decoded based on the given code(s).
c) Date, time and arrangement problems: Calender and clock problems, blood relationship
and seating arrangements.
d) Passage Analysis: A duly structured situation will be presented to the candidates and they
will be asked to analyse and suggest their own solution to the problem arising out of
situation. Alternatively, they may be called upon to prove the understanding of the
situation by answering certain searching questions based on the situation.


Andhra pradesh public service commission has released notifications to various categories of post in the state i.e., Group I ,Group II, Group IV and other categories .

For more details please go throuh apspsc.gov.in

keep visiting this blog for more updates and model questions. Keep ask the questions for clarification