Tuesday, December 30, 2008

Junior Lecturers Syllabus of APPSC

SCHEME AND SYLLABUS FOR RECRUITMENT TO THE POST OF
JUNIOR LECTURERS IN A.P. INTERMEDIATE EDUCATION SERVICE
(P.G. standard)
Duration
Maximum
Papers No.of
Questions
(Minutes)
Marks
PART-A: Written ‘Examination (Objective Type)
Paper-1: General Studies 150 150 150
Paper-2: Concerned Subject (One only) 150 150 300
PART-B: Interview (Oral Test)
50
1. The Candidates have to choose one subject from the following for Paper-2:
Name of the Subject
Mathematics
Physics
Zoology
Urdu
N.B:
1. The selections to these posts will be based on the total marks obtained by the candidates at the
written examination and oral test taken together subject to the rule of reservation.
2. The eligible candidates will be called for an interview at the ratio of 1:2 with referenced to the
number of vacancies duly following the special representation as laid down in General Rule-22 and
22-A of A.P. State and Subordinate Service Rules.
3. Appearance to Written Examination and Oral Test is compulsory for final selection.
4. For Paper-2 i.e., concerned subject the candidates have to write the subject of study at Post
Graduate level but not other subject
SYLLABUS
PAPER-1: GENERAL STUDIES AND MENTAL ABILITY
1. General Science – Contemporary developments in Science and Technology and their implications
including matters of every day observation and experience, as may be expected of a well-educated person
who has not made a special study of any scientific discipline.
2. Current events of national and international importance.
3. History of India – emphasis will be on broad general understanding of the subject in its social, economic,
cultural and political aspects with a focus on AP Indian National Movement.
4. World Geography and Geography of India with a focus on AP.
5. Indian polity and Economy – including the country’s political system- rural development – Planning and
economic reforms in India.
6. Mental ability – reasoning and inferences.

2
ENGLISH
th
Detailed Study of literary age (19
Century) viz.,
The period of English Literature from 1798 to 1900 with special reference to the works of the major
writers including Words worth, Coleridge, Byron, Keats, Shelley, Lamb, Hazlitt, Thackeray, Dickens,
Tennyson, Browning, Arnold George Eliot, Calyle and Ruskin.
Study of the following Texts:
1. William Shakespeare : ‘Macbeth’, ‘Hamlet’, ‘Julius Vrsdst’, ‘Tempest’
2. John Milton : ‘Paradise Lost’, -Books I & II
3. Alexander Pope : .‘The Rape of the Lock’
4. William Wordsworth : ‘The Immorality Ode’, ‘The Tin Tern Abbey’
5. John Keats : ‘Ode to a Nightingale’
6. P.B. Shelley : ‘Ode to the West Wing’
7. Jane Austen : ‘Pride and Prejudice’.
8. Charles Dickens : ‘A Tale of Two Cities’
9. Thomas Hardy : ‘The mayor of Casterbridge’
10. W.B. Yeats : “Byzantium”, ‘The Second Coming’.
11. T.S. Eliot : ‘The Waste Land’.
12. D.H. Lawrence : ‘Sons and Lovers’.
13. Mulk Raj Anand : ‘The Big heart’
14. R.K. Narayan : ‘The Man eater of Malgudi’

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TELUGU
I.
a) Study of classical poets – their age and works – particular selections from Nannaya, Tikkana,
Errapragada, Salva Poets i.e., (Nannechoda, Mallikarjuna Pandita, Palakuriki Soma), Nachana
Somana – Bhaskara Ramayana poets and Ranganatha Ramayana Poet – Srinatha – Pothana –
Pillalamarri Pinaveerabhadra – Raurana – Jakkana – Anantamatya – Koravi Goparaju – Nandi
Mallaya and Ghanta Singana – Ashta Diggaja Poets – Tallapaka Poets – Krishnadeva Raya –
Ponnaganti Telangana – Chemakura Venkataraju – King Poets of Tanjavore – Women Poets –
Kuchimanchi Poets – (Jaggana – Timmana).
b) Vemana, his philosophy – Observations and views on his times – his importance as commentator on
contemporary times – his relevance now.
II.
a) Study of literary trends – Sailent features of the ages, forms etc., Itihasa – Purana Prabhandha –
Sataka – Folksong – Yakshagana – Samkertana Literature – Historical poem, Prose works classical
and Modern – Novel-short story – Essay - One Act Play, etc.
b) Classical and Neo-classical trends – Modern Age.
III
. Study of Modern Poets – Modern Trends – their works, Gurajada – Rayaprolu – Veereshalingam –
Chilakamarthi – Panuganti – Viswanatha, Devulapalli, Basavaraju, Pingali, Katuri, Duvvuri,
Puttaparthi, Sri Sri and leading Modern Poets – Trends – Romantic Movement – Progressive
Movement – Digambara Poets etc.
IV.
Study of Telugu Grammar and General Prosody – Balavyakaranam and Praudha Vyakaranam.
V
. Study of History and Evolution of Telugu language – From the early period of Modern period – The
place of Telugu among the language families of India in general and the Drvidian family in particular
Geographical positions and distribution – dialectal forms etc.
VI
. Study of Philology – Linguistics and Semantics – Modern period: Evolution of Telugu through
linguistic and literary movements (like the spoken Telugu movements, etc.)
VII.
Study of Evolution of Telugu literature from the early period of Modern period covering all the ages.
VII
I. Study of Aesthetics and Literary criticism (Eastern and Western outlook)
IX
. Study of Sanskrit Grammar and Kavyas: Elementary knowledge of Sanskrit Grammar – Simple and
standard texts for prose and poetry – Hitopadesa and Kalidasa’s works.

4
ECONOMICS
I. 1. National Economic Accounting, National Income Analysis Generation and Distribution of Income and
related aggregates: Gross National Product, Net National Product, Gross Domestic Product & Net
Domestic Product (at market prices and factor costs): at constant and current prices.
2. Price Theory: Law of Demand: Utility analysis and Indifference Curve techniques, Consumer
equilibrium, Cost curves and their relationships; equilibrium of a firm under different market
structures; pricing of factors of Production.
3. Money and Banking: Definitions and functions of money (M1, M2 M3): Credit creation; Credit;
Sources, Costs and availability; theories of the Demand for money.
4. International Trade: The theory of comparative costs; Recardian Hockseher Ohlin; the balance of
payments and the adjustment mechanism. Trade theory and economic growth and development.
5. Economic growth and development; Meaning and measurement; characteristics of under
development; rate and pattern, Modern Growth; Sources of growth distribution and growth-problems
of growth of developing economics.
II. Indian Economy-India’s economy since Independence; trends in population growth since 1951,
Population and poverty; general trends in National Income and related aggregates; Planning in India
Objectives, Strategy and rate and pattern of growth; problems of Industrialization strategy;
Agricultural growth since Independence with special reference to food-grains; unemployment; nature
of the problem and possible solution, Public Finance and Economic Policy.
III. Identification of backward regions and the problems of regional development with special reference
to Andhra Pradesh.

5
COMMERCE
Financial Management:
Corporation Finance – Economic and Managerial Aspects – Finance Education
Financial Plan – Operating and Financial leverage – Capital Structure determinants
Internal Financial Control – Ratio Analysis – Break-even Analysis – Sources and uses of funds
statements
Concepts of valuation and cost of capital – Cost of Debt-Cost of preference capital – Cost of Equity
Capital – Cost of retained earnings – Weighted Cost of Capital.
Fundamentals of capital Budgeting – Evaluation of Investment opportunities – Pay back Accounting,
Rate of return – Discounted cash Flow Techniques.
Concepts of over and under capitalization – Working Capital Management – Management of
Inventories – Receivables and cash
Economics and Income retention – dividend policy - Financial aspects of expansion, reconstruction
and recognition
Industrial Organisation:
Concepts of Industry, Firm and Plant
Size of Units – Optimum firm and representation firm – Size in private and Public Sectors in India-
Problems and Policy implications – Multi-plant units – Multi Plant units in private and public sectors –
Economic problems and Policy size and efficiency.
Location – Concepts of location and localization – Location criteria – Factors influencing localization
– Measures of localization – Localisation pattern in Indian industry – Balanced Regional
Development – Location development of managers – Performance appraisal
State and Industry – Operational Control over Private Industry
Labour Economics and Industrial Relations.
Labour in Industrial Society – Man power problems of under-developed countries
Economics of the Labour Market – factors affecting supply and demand for labour – Concepts of full
employment, unemployment – different types of unemployment – Causes – Effects and remedial
measures, labour mobility – Absenteeism and turnover.
Social security and Labour welfare – Problems of Social security in a developing economy– Social
Security in India; Settlement of Industrial disputes – Machinery for the same
Collective bargaining – Objectives and methods – Issues in Bargaining
Tripartite bodies in Industrial Relations
Management:
Organisation concept – different approaches to the study of Organisation. Constraints over
organisational and managerial performance. Principles of organisation
Planning – Business Objectives – Social responsibilities of business
Authority, Power, Influence and the art of delegation, Span of Supervision
Line and Staff relationships
Bases and problems of departmentation
Centralisation and Decentralisation
Bureaucracy-Committee management
Top management functions and the role of the Board
Control functions in organisations
Group dynamics
Communication -Leadership – Motivation – Morale – Training and Development of managers –
Performance appraisal.

6
MATHEMATICS
Real Analysis
: Continuity and differentiability of real functions.; Uniform continuity, Sequences and series
of functions. Uniform convergence. Functions of bounded variation. Riemann integration.
Complex “Analysis
: Analytic functions. Cauchy’s theorem Cauchy’s integral formula. Iaurent’s series.
Singularities. Theory of residues – Conformal mapping.
Abstract Algebra
: Groups – Sub-groups – normal sbugroups Quotient group Homomorphism –
Fundamental theorem of Hamomorphism, Permutation groups: Cayley’s theorem – Rings – Subrings –
Ideals – Fields – Polynomial rings.
Linear Algebra:
Vector spacers – Basis and dimension – Linear transformations – Matrices – Characteristic
roots and characteristic vectors – systems of linear equations – Canonicl forms – Cayley – Hamilton
theorem.
Differential Equations
: First order ordinary differential equations (O.D.E) and their solutions – Singular
solutions. Intial value problems for first order O.D.E. General theory of homogeneous and non-
homogeneous linear differential equations, variation of parameters. Elements of first order partial
differential equations (PDE).
Co-ordinate Geometry of Three Dimentions: The Plane – The straight-line – Sphere and cone.

7
PHYSICS
I. Mathematical Physics:
Vectors: Vector operators like DCI & grad, div. & curl. Surface and volume integrals – Theorems of Gauss,
Stokes, & Green.
Matrices: Quality, addition and subtraction, multiplication of matrices, inverse of a matrices, similarity and
unitary transformation Characteristic equation of a matrix Eigen values – Eigen vectors Square, diagonal,
unit, symmetric, and skewmatrix-Hermitian and unitary matrix.
Tensors: Tensors of any order –Transformation relation Covariant & Contra-variant tensors-Christoffel
symbols.
Fourier Analysis: Trigonometric Fourier series – Evaluation of coefficients – Exponential Fourier series.
II. Classical Mechanics:
General Theorems of mechanics of mass points – Principales of Virtual work – De-Alember’s principle –
Lagrange’s equation of motion – Hamilton’s principle – Hamilton’s Equation of motion – Principle of lest
action – Canonical transformations = Poisson bracket. Rigid body motion – Euler’s theorem on rigid body
motion – moment of inertia-tensor – heavy Symmetrical top.
III. Electromagnetic Theory:
Generalisation of Ampere’s Law – Derivation of Maxwells equation – Pointing theorem – Transverse nature
of Electromagnetic waves – propagation & Conducting and non-conducting media – metallic reflection –
Propagation of light in crystalline media – Fresnel’s Theory of double refraction.
IV. Special Theory of Relativity:
Galilean Transformation – Newtonians Relativity – Michelson’s Morley Experiment – Postulates of special
theory of relativity Lorentz’s transformation – Relativistic particle mechanics Equivalence of mass & energy
– Covariance of Maxwell’s equation.
V. Statistical Mechanics:
Generalised coordinates & momenta-phase space, Liowellies Theorems – Maxwell Boltzman statistics –
Distribution of velocities and energy in ideal gas – Equipartition of energy – Vibrational, rotational, and
electronic partition functions for diatomic gas – specific heats of gas – Ortho and para hydrogen’s – Bose
Einstein & Fermi Dirac statistics – Bose Einstein gas and application to radiation – liquid helium – Free
electrons in metals.
VI. Quantum Mechanics:
Shordinger’s wave equation – Born interpretation of wave functions – Expectations values of dynamical
variables – Ehrenfests’ Theorem - Uncertainity Principle – Application of Shordinger’s equation to (a) One
dimensional squarewell potential (b) Simple harmonic Oscillator (c) Hydrogen atom.
Perturbation theory – First order and second order theories for non degenerate & degenerate systems –
Application to normal helium atom – Time dependent & time independent perturbation theory – Application
for each. Relativistic quantum mechanics – Klenn Garnian equation Dirac’s equation Solution for a free
particle meaning of negative energy states – Quantum theory of scattering – Born approximation.
VII. Electronics:
Vacuum: Tubes and semiconductor diodes – Principle and working of rectifier and power supply – Ripple
factor L and T section filters voltage stabilisation in power supplies characteristics of triode and pentode and
junction transistors their static characteristics – Voltage amplifiers – R.C. coupled amplifiers – and its
frequency response Negative feed back in amplifiers – Advantages of–Ve feed back – condition for
sinosoidal oscillations in transistor circuits Hartley and Colpitts oscillators–multi vibrators A stable–
Monostable and bi-stable type–Pulse generator–Saw tooth voltage generator Cathode–ray oscilloscope
(C.R.O).
VIII. Solid State Physics:
Crystallography – Classification of solids – Point group and space group – Crystal systems – Specification
of planes and directions – Elements of X-ray diffraction – Various crystal bindings – Metallic, ionic, co-valent
molecular and hydrogen bonded crystals – Band theory of solids – motion of electrons in periodic potential
Block’s theorem Kronig’s penny model – energy bands – Brillouin zones – distinction between insulators –
Metals and Semi-conductors on band theory.
IX. Nuclear Physics:
Radioactivity, Chain dis-integration, transient and secular equilibrium – Age of rocks and Radio carbon
dating – alpha decay or Gamow’s theory – Beta decay and nutrino Interaction of gamma rays with matter –
Selection rules – nuclear models – Liquid drop model – semi empirical mass formula – criteria for stability
against spontaneous decay – Shell model – nuclear detectors – Ionisation – Chambers – G.M. counters –
Proportional counters – bubble and spark chambers – Semi-conductor detectors.
X. Spectrocopy:
Bohr – Sommerfield theory of Hydrogen atoms – Space quantisation – fine structure of spectral lines –
Alkali spectra – Zeeman effect Vector atom model of one electron system – Paschen – Back effect – Stark
effect in Hydrogen atoms – Band spectra – Types of band spectra-I.R. and Raman effect. Isotope effect –
Franck – Candon Principle.

8
CHEMISTRY
Inorganic Chemistry:
1. Atomic structure & Chemical Bonding – Quantum theory Schrodinger – wave equation – Hydrogen
atom,Hydrogen molecule – Elements on valence bond – molecular orbital theories.
2. Determination of molecular structure – X – ray and electron diffraction methods.
3. Periodic classification (Classical and modern) periodic functions of elements – atomic volume – atomic
radious electronegativity-oxidation states – lattice energy and their applications.
4. Chemistry of d-block elements – Physical and chemical characteristics of the transition elements –
Characteristics related to electronic arrangements oxidation states – colow magnetic properties –
Complex formation – interstitial L-S couping – Hund’s rule. A General study of the first transition
series.
5. Chemistry of F-block elements – Lanthanons and Actinons – electronic configurations – oxidation’s
states – Separation of Lanthanons and Actinons.
6. Chemistry of complex compounds: Jourgenson and werner’s views – effective atomic number –
valence bond theory – Introductory treatment of crystalfield theory applied to complexes with co-
ordination number 6.
7. Isomerism in complexes: Geometrical and optical isomerism of four and six co-ordinated complexes.
Pearson’s theory of hard and soft acids and bases.
8. Study of the following elements and their modern Chemistry Be, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Mo, W, U, and Th.
9. Alloys: Interimettalic compounds.
Physical Chemistry:
10. Radio activity: Elementary account of nuclear structure natural and artificial radio activity –
characterisation of relations – decay chains-half-life-decay constant and average life. Radio-active
series, atomic transmutation – atomic fission and fusion reactions and their applications – nuclear
isomers and their separations.
11. Kinetic theory of gases: Equations of state – critical constants – States of aggregation – liquid states –
viscocity – physical properties an chemical constitution – collision theory of derivation of the collision –
number from Kinetic theory of gases.
12. Chemical Kinetics: order and molecularity of reaction first order and second order reactions – law of
mass action – influence of temperature and pressure – thermo-dynamic derivation of Law of mass
action – unimolecular reactions Lindemann’s theory.
13. Thermodynamics: First law of thermodynamics and its applications to ideal gases, energy and
enthalpy changes in gases, heat capacities of gases and their inter-relation. Isothermal and adiabatic
processes – Kirchoff’s equation and its applications – Vant Hoff’s isotherm isochore equilibria in
heterogeneous system. Second Flaw of thermo dynamics (Joules and Joule Thomson experiments).
Entropy change in an isolated system for reversible and irrevbersible processes – Variation on entropy
of a system with temperature and pressure.
Organic Chemistry:
14. Heterocylic compounds and chemistry of nutral products – Importance of heterocyclic compounds –
classification based on the natury of heterocetom, size of the ring and II excessive and II deficient
nature of the ring.
A general and comparative study of Furan pyrole and thiophene Ring transformations. General
comparison with benzenoidd compounds, pyridine, quinotine, Isoquinoline and acrdine-fII deficient
nature of heterocylic rings – case of nucleophilic substitution.
15. Methods of synthesis, reactivity and properties of the following polynuclear aromatic compounds:
anthracene, Benzanthracene, Phenontherene Chryeneand picene.
16. Benzopyrones : Couamarins and Chromones.
17. Alkaloids: General occurrence, reactions and degradations. Chemical and Physico-Chemical methods
for the elucidation of structures-synthesis and structural elucidation of the following alakaloids –
atropine – cocaine - quinene – Narcotine – papaverine.
18. Organic reaction mechanism: Structure and reactivity of organic molecules – Factors affecting
Electron density in a band-inductive, induct rometric, mesomeric, (reasonance) and electrometric
effects, hyperconjugation – Dipole moments-acedic and basic strength of organic Compounds.
Modern concepts of organic reaction mechanisms – Addition, substitution and elimination reactions –
simple examples and their mechanism. The intermediate carboniumion formation and its participation
in organic reactions. Addition C-C, system-pinocol-pincolene rearrange rearrangements. Automatic
substitution – Formation and hydrolysis of esters.
19. Some name reactions: Wurtz-Friedel-Crafts, Fries-Gatter-mann – Perin – Beckmann’s rearrangements
and Grignard reactions.
20. Carbohydrates: General reactions of monosaccha rides – configurational studies on glucose, fructose,
sucrose, Recent advances in the Chemistry of cellulose and starch.
21. Proteins – Introduction to proteins – their classification – Nomenclature and distribution in nature
simple, amino acids – Isolation and their synthesis.

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22. General Ideas regarding the chemistry of vitamins & Harmones nicotine, B-Carotene and Vitamin C.
23. Alicyclic compounds: Synthesis and reactions Bayers strain theory – Factors affecting stability of
conformation – terpenes – citral – gerniol – limonenene – terpinol – pinene and camphor.
24. Stereo Chemistry: Opticnal and geometrtic isomerism configuration of saturated molecues – DL and
RS configuration of optically active compound-racemic – mixtures – racemisation and resolution.
25. Molecular spectra: NMR, Chemical shift – Spin – Spincoupling – ESR of simple radicals – Rotational
Spectra, diatomic molecules, linear triatomic molecules, isotopic substitution – Vibrational and Raman
Spectra.
Physical Chemistry:
26. Electro-Chemistry: Equivalent conductance and its measurement. The independent migration of jons
– kholraush’s Law. Transport number and their determination. Ionic mobilities. Equivalent
conductance of weak and strong electrolytes. Inter-ionic attraction theory treated quantitatively-
Debye-huckle-onsager equation. Determination of solubilities from conductance measurements -–
Conductometric titration’s.
Ionic product of water and its determination from conductance and EMF methods – theories of acids
and bases – Hydrogen ion concentration and its measurements from E.M.F.measurements using
Hydrogen quin – hydroen and glass electrodes – Buffer solutions – Henderson’s equation
potentiometric titration’s – Determinations of equilibrium constant and solubilities from
E.M.F.measurements – Gibbs – Helmbholtz equation and its application to chemical cells.
27. Photo – Chemistry: Laws on absorption of light – Gretius – Draper Laws – Einstiens Law in Chain
reactions – Hydrogen chlorine reactions – absorption – Laws of absorption.
28. Surface Chemistry and catalysis – Absorption isotherms, surface area determination, heterogeneous
catalysis, acid-base and enzyme cotolysis.

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BOTANY
I. Bacteria and Viruses:
1. General Account of viruses. Definition, Characterisation, Chemistry, Ultrasturcture, Composition,
replication, Bacteriaphages, transmission of plant viruses, Importance.
2. General account of bacteria – Characteristics, shape, ultrastructure of the cell, nutrition, reproduction,
classification and importance.
II. Plant Pathology:
1. Disease symptoms produced by Bacteria, Fungi, and Viruses.
2. A general account of important diseases of crop plants and their control:
a) Late blight of potato f) Leaf spot of rice.
b) Smuts (Wheat, Jowar) g) Citrus cancer
c) Rust of wheat h) Bacterial blight of paddy.
d) Leaf spot of groundnut. i) Angular leaf spot of cotton.
e) Paddy blast. j) Mosaic of Tobacco.
3. Mycoplasma.
4. Control of plant diseases (A general account)
III. Algae (Phycology)
1. Introduction and general classification of Algae.
2. Criteria for the classification.
3. Thallus organization in Algae.
4. Economic importance of Algae.
5. General characters, structure, Reproduction, pigments, phylogeny, life cycles etc., of main groups in
Algae with reference to Genera Given:
(a)
Cyanophyceae (Nostoc, Scytonema, Oscillatoria).
(b)
Chlorophyceae (Chlamydomonas, Volvox, Cladeopora, Oedogonium, Coleochaete, Chara).
(c) Bacillariaphyceae – General Account.
(d)
Xanthophyceae – Vautheria]
(e)
Phaeophyceae (Ectocarpus, Laminaria)
(f) Rhedophyceae (Polysiphonia, Gracillaria)
IV. Fungi (Mycology):
1. General Characters of fungi. Occurrence and thallus structure of fungi. Nutritional aspects of Fungi
(Saprophytism, parasitism, Symbiosis). Modes of reproduction (Sexual and Asexual). Life cycle in
fungi. Criteria for classification of fungi. Classificatory systems.
2. General characters, morphology, reproduction, phylogeny, affinities etc., of the following : main groups
with special reference to Genera given below:
a) Mytomycetes (stemonites).
b) Plasmodiophoromycetes (Plasmodiphora).
c) Mastigormycotina (Saprolegnia, Phytopthera).
d) Zygomycotina (Mucor).
e) Ascomycotina (Taphnina Eurotium, Erysiphe, Pleospora Neuropora).
f) Basidiomycotina (Puccinia, Agaricus).
g) Deuteromycotina (Cercospora, Colletotrichum, Phoma).
3. Economic importance of Fungi.
V. Bryophyta:
1. General characters of Bryophyta.
2. Sporophyte evolution in Bryophytes.
3. Classification of Bryophytes.
4. General account of the following main groups.
a) Hepaticopsida, (b) Anthoceratopsida, (c) Bryopsida.
5. Structure, reproduction and systematics of the following genera:
a) Marchantia, (b) Anthoceros, (c) Sphagmum (d) Funaria.
VI. Pteridophyta:
1. General characters of pteridophytes.
2. Classification of pteridophytes.
3. General characters of the following main groups:
a) Psilopsida; b) Lycopsida; c) Sphenopsida (Eusporangiate and Leptosporangiates):
4. Morphology, anatomy, reproduction and affinities of the following genera:
a) Psilotum; b) Lycopodium; c) Selaginella; d) Ophioglostum; e) Marsilea; f) Pteris.

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VII. Palaeobotany:
1. Fossil pteridophytes .
2. Origin and evolution of land plants.
3. Homospory, Heterospory and Origin of Seed.
4. Telome theory and origin of sporophyte.
5. General account of the following fossil Gymnosperms.
a) Pteridosperms; b) Bennittitales; c) Cordaitales; d) Pentoxylales.
VIII. Gymnosperms:
1. Gymnosperms.
2. Comparative account of morphology, life history, Affinities etc. of the following:
a) Cycadophyta – Cycas, Zarnia,
b) Coniferophyta – Pinus.
c) Ginkgophyta – Gintgo.
d) Chlamydospermatophyta : Ephedra, Welwetschia, Gnetum.
3. Classification of Gymnosperms.
IX. Taxonomy of Angiosperms:
1. Systems of classification: - Hutchinson, Takhtajan, Bessey, Engler and Prantl, Bentham and Hooker.
2. Principles of taxonomy:- Criteria of classification, categories of classification, Diversity of Phyletic
concepts.
3. International code of Botanical nomenclature, principles, Typification, Citation and authority.
4. Recent trends in Taxonomy:
a) Biosystematics; b) Chemataxonomy; c) Serodiagnostic test and classification,
d) Numerical taxonomy.
5. Study of the following families with reference to their characterstics, economic importance, attributes
etc.,
a) Ranuculacease, e) Malvaceae, i) Apocynaceae, m) Solanaceae,
b) Caryophyllaceae, f) Tiliacee, j) Asclepiadaceae, n) Euphorbiaceae,
c) Sterculiaceae, g) Rubiaceae, k) Boraginaceae, o) Poaceae.
d) Sapotaceae, h) Compositae, l) Convolvulaceae,
X. Anatomy and Cell Biology:
1. Ultra structure of the cell and cell organelles along with their functions.
2. Cell wall structure.
3. Tissue and Tissue systems.
4. Meristems – Shoot and root apices.
5. Normal and anamolom Secondary growth.
XI. Embryology:
1. Concept of primitive flower.
2. Development of anther and ovule.
3. General account of Embryosac and types of Embryo.
4. Fertilization.
5. Endosperm morphology and types.
6. Polyembryony and apomixis.
XII. Cytology, Genetics and Evolution:
1. Mitosis and Meiosis.
2. Chromosome (Morphology, Structures importance etc.).
3. Concept of gene, laws of inheritance gene action.
4. Genetic code.
5. Linkage and crossing over.
6. Parasexuality.
7. General account of Mutations
8. Polyploidy and its role in crop improvement.
9. Origin of life.
XII. Ecology and Phytogeography :
1. Ecosystem: - Concept, boitic and abiotic components, ecological pyramids, productivity.
2. Geo-chemical cycles.
(Carbon, Nitrogen, Sulphur, Phosphorous cycles).
3. Plant succession – Xerosere and Hydrosere.
4. Floristic regions of the world.
5. Floristic zones of India.

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XIV. Physiology:
1. Absorption and translocation of water.
2. Transpiration and stomatal behaviour.
3. Absorption and uptake of Ions, Donnan’s equilibrium.
4. Role of micronutrients in plant growth.
5. Translocation of solutes.
6. Respiration (Glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt, structure and role of mitochondria, Krebs cycle,
Oxidative phosphorylation, Photorespiration, Respiratory quotient, Fermentation, Pasteur effect
Factors affecting).
7. Photosynthesis: - light and dark reaction, Red drop, Emerson effect, Two pigment systems,
Mechanism of Hydrogen transfer, Calvin cycle, Enzymes of CO2 reduction, Hatch a slack cycle C4
cycle, CAM Pathway, Factors affecting photosynthesis, Pigments.
8. The enzymes: Nomenclature and classification, structure and composition, Mode of enzyme action,
Factors affecting.
9. Nitroge, Metabolism and bio, synthesis of proteins Nitrogen fixation, Nitrogen cycle, (Physical and
biological) Nitrogen assimilation Amino acid, metabolism, Biosynthesis of proteins.
10. Plant hormones Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Abscissic acid (General account).
XV. Economic Botany:
1. Cultivation, economic importance, systematic position and morphology of the following plants.
(a) Rice (e) Sugarcane (I) Coffee (m) Rauwolfia
(b) Wheat (f) Groundnut (j) Tea (n) Pigeon pea
(c) Jowar (g) Sun flower (k) Jute (o) Pearl millet.
(d) Cotton (h) Castor (l) Cardamom
XVI. Recent Aspects of Botany:
1. Modern techniques
a) Electron microscopy, e) Electrophoresis
b) Phase contrast microscopy f) The tracer technique
c) Spectro photometry g) Auto radiography
d) Chromatography h) Sero-diagnostic methods.
2. Genetic engineering.
3. Plant tissue culture.
4. Alternative sources of Energy.
5. Social forestry.
6. Microorganisms as tools in understanding biological systems.
7. Environmental pollution (Water, soil, air) health hazards and control.

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ZOOLOGY
Non-chordata and Chordata:
Non-Chordata:
1. Protozoa-Classification of protozoa (Honigberg), Locomotion in Protozoa, Nutrition in protozoa,
Reproduction in protozoa, Diseases of Protozoa, Economic importance of Protozoa.
2. Porifera: Canal system in porifera, skeleton in porifera, Reproduction in sponges.
3. Coelenterata : Polymorphism in coelenteratas, Metagenesis coral formation, etenophora.
4. Hemlinths: Common Helminthic parasites of Man – Taenia solium, Schistosoma sp., Ascaris,
Ancylostoma, Oxyuris Loa, Trichinella, Strongyloides – their life cycles, Parasitism.
5. Annelida: Excretory system in Annelida, Coelome formation.
6. Arthropoda: Mouthparts of Insects, crustacean larvae, parasitisim in crustacea, useful and harmful
insects, Metamorphosis in insects. Apiculture and sericulture in India.
7. Mollusca: Respiritation in Mollusca, Torsion and Detorsion, pearl formation and Pearl industry.
8. Echinodermata: Echinoderm larvae.
CHORDATA:
Origin of Chordata, phylogeny and affinities of Hemichordata Retrogressive metamorphosis,
Comparative account of Respiratory, Circulatory, Excretory and Reproductive systems of
Vertebrates. Pisciculture in India, Common edible fishes of A.P., Origin and classification of
Amphibia, Paedogenesis.
Temporal fossae in Reptilia, Important snakes of India, Dinosaurs.
Adaptations of flight in birds, Migration of birds. Poultry in India.
Adaptive radiation in Mammals, Aquatic Mammals, useful Mammals, Dentition in Mammals.
Evolution of placentalia.
Cell Biology Genetics, Physiology, Evolution, Embryology, Histology, Ecology.
Cell Biology: Ultra structure of the Cell-Plasma membrane – Mitochondria, Golgibodies, Nucleus,
Endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes. Chromosomes and their fine structure. Mitosis and meiosis-
D.N.A. & R.N.A. and geneic code, Protein synthesis.
Genetics: Mendel’s law of inheritance – Critical review. Linkage, crossing over, Sex linked
inheritance, Mutations, Inborn errors of Metabolism, Human genetics.
Physiology: Vitamins; Enzymes; Carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism; Osmoregulation,
Thermoregulation; Excretion in Vertebrates; Muscle contraction; Nerve Impulse; vertebrate
harmones and Mammalian reproduction.
Evolution: Origin of life – Modern concepts, theories of Evolution, Isolation, Speciation, Natural
Selection, Hardy weinberg'’ Law, Population genetics and evolution, Adaptations, Evolution of Man.
Zoogeographical realms of the world.
Embryology: Cleavage patterns; Gastrulation and its significance in development of vertebrates;
Formation and functions of Foetal membranes, Types of placenta, organisers, Regeneration, genetic
control of development organogenesis of central nervous system, sense organs, heart and kidney of
vertebrate embryos.
Histology: Histology of Mammalian tissues and organs – Epithelial, connective, blood, bone,
cartilage, skin, stomach, intestine, liver, pancreas, kidney, Testis and ovary.
Ecology: Concept of Ecosystem, Biogoechemical cycles, influence of environmental factors on
animals, energy flow in Ecosystem, food chains & Tropic levels, community ecology. Ecological
Succession, Environmental Pollution – Air, water, land, Noise, Radioactive, thermal and Visual,
Effects of Pollution on ecosystem, Prevention of Pollution.
Wild life in India – Conservation.
Man & Biosphere Programme – Chipko movement.

14
HISTORY
Ancient India:
1. Harappan Civilisation -- Extent, major cities, Characterstic features, social and economic conditions,
script, religious paractices, causes for the decline.
2. Vedic Age: Importance of Vedic literature, political, social and economic conditions in the early and
later vedic age.
th
3. India in the 6
Century B.C.: Social and economic conditions, Rise and spread of jainism and
Bhuddhism.
4. Mauryan Age: political history of the Mauryans, Ashoka, Mauryan Administration, Social and
economic conditions, decline of the Mauryan empire.
5. The Sathavahanas: political history, administration, contribution to the culture.
6. Gupta period: Political history, administration, social and economic conditions, growth of culture,
decline of the empire.
th
7. India in the 7
Century A.D.: Harsha vardhana, Pallavas and Chalukyas, their political history and
their contribution to culture.
Medieval India:
8. India between 650 and 1200 A.D. -- political, Social and economic conditions, Chola administration
and culture, Sankaracharya.
9. Age of the Delhi Sultanate: (1206-1526), Military and Administrative organisation. Changes in
Society and economy, Bhakthi movement.
10. The Vijayanagar Empire: Origin, History, Krishnadevaraya, Social and economic conditions, growth
of culture, decline.
11. Mughal Age (1556-1707): political history, Akbar, Administration, Social and Economic conditions,
culture, decline of the Mauryan empire Maharattas and Shivaji.
Modern India (1757-1947):
12. Historical forces and factors which led to the establishment of the British power in India -Early
resistance to the British power in India - Hyder Ali, Tippu Sultan, causes for their failure.
13. Evolution of British paramountcy in India: Policies of Wellesley and Dalhousie.
14. Socio-religious reform movements Rajaram Mohan Roy, Dayananda Saraswathi and others.
15. Revolt of 1857: Causes, results, significance.
16. Rise and growth of the Indian National Movement: Birth of the Indian National Congress, the
national movement from 1885 to 1905; movement from 1905 to 1920. Role of Tilak and Annie
Besant; The movement from 1920 to 1947; Emergence of Gandhi; Non-cooperation movement, Salt
Satyagraha and the Quit India Movement.
Freedom movement in Andhra Pradesh with special reference to the role ofAlluri Sitharama Raju
and Tanguturi Prakasam, Revolt against the Nizam's rule in Telengana.
Modern world:
17. Industrial Revolution - Significance and results.
18. American war of Independence courses, significance and results.
19. French Revolution - Courses, significance and effects.
th
20. National Liberation movements in Italy and Germany in the 19
Century - Mazzini, Cavour, Garivildi,
Bismark.
21. I World War - Causes and effects.
22. The Russian Revolution of 1917 - Causes, importance and results.
23. The World between the two world wars - Nazisms in Germany, Fascism in Italy. Turkey under
Mustafa Kamal Pasha
24. Developments in China 1911-1949 – Nationalist Revolution of 1911 – Communist Revolution of
1948
25. II World War -- Causes and effects.

15
POLITICAL SCIENCE
1, State: Theories of origin of State. Rights and Duties, Law, Liberty and Equality. Nation & Nationality
– Forms of Government Press – Pressure Groups and parties
2. Ideologies: Utilitarianism – Individualism – Idealism. Theories of Socialism – Gandhian philosophy
3. Theories of Decision making – Behaviouralism – System Theory, Elite Theory – Structural functional
decision-making and Game Theory.
4. Nature of Indian Constitution – Fundamental Rights – Directive Principles of state policy legislature –
Executive and Judiciary – Judicial Review – Centre-State relations – Problems of National
Integration.
5. United Nations and Collective Security – Concept of power in International Relations – Balance of
Power, Cold-wars d├ętente. Arms Control and Disarmament.
6. Problems of Third World. New Colonialism – Non-alignment India’s role in world affairs.

16
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
1. Meaning and scope of Public Administration – Its relations with other Social Sciences – The Art and
Science of Public Administration
2. Theories of Administration – Classical, Human Relations, Ecological, Systems approach – Decision-
making
3. Concept of Development - Administration and Comparative Administration
4. Concept of Administration: Hierarchy, Span of Control, Co-ordination, Unity of Command,
Centralisation and Decentralisation, Authority and responsibility, Formal and Informal Organisation,
Decision making, Leadership, Administrative Planning, Communication, Work motivation,
Management Information system.
5. Types of Organisation: Departments, Corporations, Independent Regulatory Commissions.
6. Administrative adjudications, Delegated Legislation
7. Controls over Administration – Legislative, Executive, Judicial
8. Personnel Administration – Recruitment, Promotion, All India Services, Political Rights of Civil
Servants – Right to strike – Negotiating Machinery – Generalist versus Specialisits – Controversy,
Citizens Grievances – Lok Ayukta and Lokpal; the A.P. Administrative Tribunal.
9. Financial Administration – Principles of Budgeting, Performance Budgeting, PPBS, Budgeting in
India, Organisation and Role of Finance Ministry
10. Centre- State and State-Local Relations in India
11. Planning in India – Planning Commission, Planning Process at National and State levels – Concept
of Block Planning
12. State Administration – Organisation, Secretariat, Minister – Civil Servant relations – Directorates –
Boards of Revenue, Functional Commissioners, Regional Administration, Divisional Commissioners,
District Administration
13. Local Government; Theories of Local Government – Organisation, Process, Functions and working
of Panchayat Raj Institutions in Andhra Pradesh, Municipal Administration in Andhra Pradesh; Urban
Development Authorities; Official – Non-Official relations in local Government relations.

17
HINDI
I. Study of the following ten authors and poets:
1. Kabir
2. Tusdidas
3. Bihari
4. Surdas
5. Acharya Ramachandra Shukla
6. Premchand
7. Prasad
8. Pant
9. Nirala
10. Dinakar
II. Appreciation of the popular couplets of Tulsi, Kabir, Rahim, Vrinda etc., and a few lines from modern
poets of Prasad, Pant etc.
III. Origin and development of prominent literary genres in modern Hindi, e.g. Novel, Short Story,
Drama, Criticism.
IV. The study of the following eight trends of the history of Hindi Literature.
1. Gyan Margi Shakha
2. Prem Margi Shakha
3. Ram Bhakti Shakha
4. Krishna Bhakti Shakha
5. Riti kavya
6. Chayavada
7. Pragativada
8. Nai Kavita
V. History of various aspects of Hindi Language, eg:
1. Grammatical and lexical features of Apabhransa, Avahatta and early Hindi.
th
2. Evolution of Khari Boli Hindi as literary language during 19
Century
3. Development of Hindi as Rastra Bhasha during freedom struggle and as official
language of Indian Union since Independence.
4. Major Dialects of Hindi and their inter-relationship
5. Functional and significant grammatical features of standard Hindi
6. Origin and development of Devanagari script and its role in standardization of Hindi
language.

18
URDU
01. The study of the following Ten Authors and Poets:
1. Mohammad Quli Qutub Shah 6. Sir Syed.
2. Wali. 7. Hali.
3. Meer. 8. Iqbal.
4. Anees. 9. Premchand.
5. Ghalib. 10. Krishna Chander.
02. Appreciation of couplets of renowned poets.
03. The Study of the following eight trends of the History of Urdu Literature.
1. Development of Urdu under the Qutubshahis, and the Adil Shahis.
2. Delhi School.
3. Lucknow School.
4. Fort William College.
5. Alighar movement.
6. Iqbal and his Age.
7. The Contribution of Jamia Osmania.
8. Impact of progressive movement.
04. Study of various aspects of Language and Literature.

26 comments:

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